Cannabis Makeup

Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that includes three species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Each strain has a different sensory experience and taste or smell. Sativa plants grow from the equator through the 50th parallel. The plants that interest marijuana growers come from the equator to the 20th parallel. Countries from this area are noted for high grade marijuana and include Colombia, Jamaica, Nigeria, Congo, Thailand and Sumatra. They include both marijuana and hemp varieties. Sativas grow into 5-15 feet tall symmetrical pine-shaped plants. The spaces between the leaves on the stem are longer on the sativas than indicas. The leaves are long, slender and finger-like. Indica plants originated around the 30th parallel in the Hindu Kush region of the Himalayan foothills. This includes the countries of Afganistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Northern India and Nepal. These plants are very short, usually under 5 feet tall. They are bushy with compact branching. They range in shape from a rounded bush to a pine like shape. Hybrid Strains are developed to highlight a specific combination of properties of the plant or to establish marketing differentiation. Strain names are typically chosen by their growers, and often reflect properties of the plant, such as taste, color, smell, or the origin of the strain. In addition to “pure” indica and sativa, hybrids strains with varying ratios of these types are common. For example, the White Widow hybrid is purported to have about 60% “indica,” and 40%” sativa” genetics. These hybrid strains have combinations of traits derived from both parental types. Endocannabinoids Endocannabinoids are marijuana-like compounds that are produced by most animals, including all vertebrates. Quite surprisingly, the endocannabinoid system has an all-pervasive role in maintaining homeostasis (biochemical balance). All living creatures suffer from a common biochemical imbalance, we are all aging. Today, in developed countries, most people suffer and die from age-related illnesses including cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and cancers. Modern science from an abundance of peer-reviewed publications indicates that stimulating the endocannabinoid system benefits all of these conditions. There are 85 known cannabinoids in cannabis, but THC and CBD are reputed to be the most medicinal. And they’re also the most prevalent natural cannabinoids in cannabis. That’s why we detail the percentages of these cannabinoids. THC – (Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol) THC is the most psychologically active compound in cannabis, and it is also one of the most therapeutic. THC has analgesic, anti-spasmodic, anti-tremor, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and anti-emetic properties that are used for a variety of ailments such as: eating disorders, side effects of chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, spasticity, seizures and more. Additionally, THC has been found to reduce tumor growth and reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients should note THC can induce psychoactive, or cerebral, effects as well. Too much THC can cause unease, anxiety and overall discomfort. CBD – (Cannabidiol) Is one of several cannabinoids which interact with THC to alter its effect. This one makes you sleepy and relaxed, but is not psychoactive. CBD has been shown to provide anti-convulsant, anti-arthritic and neuroprotective properties while not inducing any psychoactivity. CBD modulates the effects of THC to provide a non-psychoactive treatment alternative. After decades in which only high-THC cannabis was available, CBD-rich strains are now being grown by and for medical users. The reduced psychoactivity of CBD-rich Cannabis may make it an appealing treatment option for patients seeking anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, anti-anxiety and/or anti-spasm effects without disconcerting euphoria or lethargy. Scientific and clinical studies indicate that CBD could be effective in easing symptoms of a wide range of difficult-to-control conditions, including: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, epilepsy, antibiotic-resistant infections and neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is currently being explored at several academic research centers in the U.S. and other countries. CBN – (Cannabinol) CBN is a physiologically inactive crystalline cannabinoid that turns into non- tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), the most psychoactive element in cannabis. It’s also produced as THC ages and breaks down, in a process called oxidization. It’s reported that high levels of CBN can make the user feel “messed up” rather than high. So store your medicine in a dark, cool, airtight environment to keep CBN levels to a minimum.

How does it work in the human body?

In 1988, a major breakthrough in our understanding of Cannabis took place when American scientist Dr. Allyn Howlett PhD., pharmacology and toxicology, at Wake Forest School of Medicine discovered cannabinoid receptors in the human brain.

CBD is a naturally occurring constituent of Cannabis Sativa and recent research has shown the CBD (cannabidiol) attaches to receptors in our bodies and helps support proper cell growth functions for improved health. CBD’s have been shown to pass through the blood-brain barrier as well attaching to brain receptors. Recent studies indicate that cannabinoids produce most of their effects by binding to proteins, called receptors, on the surfaces of certain types of cells. Many different types of receptor proteins stud the exterior membranes of the cells throughout the human body. Each receptor recognizes only a few specific molecules, known collectively as ligands. When the appropriate ligand binds to its receptor, it typically sets off a chain of biochemical reactions inside the cell. Many drugs, as well as hormones and neurotransmitters, exert their effects by acting as ligands at different receptors. The cellular receptors that bind THC, CBD and its chemical relatives are known as cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids that bind more selectively to certain receptors are more desirable for medical usage. The affinity of an individual cannabinoid to each receptor determines the effect of that cannabinoid.

Receptors in the body

Endocannabinoids are local hormones produced by the body  and are marijuana-like compounds that are produced by most animals, including all vertebrates. Quite surprisingly, the endocannabinoids system has an all-pervasive role in maintaining homeostasis (biochemical balance). Endocannabinoid Signaling (ECS) can affect every organ in the body.

Phytocannabinoids are plant molecules like THC and CBD that interact with the cannabinoid receptors in the body similar to a lock and key. Phytocannabinoids (also called natural cannabinoids, herbal cannabinoids, and classical cannabinoids) are known to occur in several different plant species. These include Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Ruderalis, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, Acmella oleracea, Helichrysum umbraculigerum, and Radula marginata. The best known herbal cannabinoids are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from Cannabis and the lipophilic alkamides (alkylamides) from Echinacea species. Phytocannabinoids are nearly insoluble in water but are soluble in lipids, alcohols, and other non-polar organic solvents.

At least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant and 25 different cannabinoids from Echinacea species. In Cannabis, these cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular Trichomes. In Echinacea species, cannabinoids are found throughout the plant structure, but are most concentrated in the roots and stems.  In Cannabis,  THC and CBD are reputed to be the most medicinal, and they’re also the most prevalent natural cannabinoids. That’s why we detail the percentages of these cannabinoids in the products on our website.

At present, there are two known types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2, with mounting evidence of more. The human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any other G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) type. All of the endocannabinoids and plant cannabinoids are lipophilic, i.e. fat soluble, compounds.

Themedical 3d illustration - female having backache CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or “CNS”), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys. The CB2 receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and in hematopoietic cells.

CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, to be specific in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus. They are also found in the cerebellum and in both male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions, which is why there is no risk of respiratory or cardiovascular failure or death that can be produced by some drugs. CB1 receptors appear to be responsible for the euphoric and anticonvulsive effects of cannabis.

CB2 receptors are predominantly found in the immune system, or immune-derived cells with the greatest density in the spleen. While found only in the peripheral nervous system, CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum . CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent natural cannabinoids and have received the most study. Below are a few of the other most prevalent cannabinoids  found in cannabis.

Some studies have shown that the use of cannabinoids results in the growth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus from both embryonic and adult stem cells. In 2005 a clinical study of rats at the University of Saskatchewan showed regeneration of nerve cells in the hippocampus. Studies have shown that a synthetic drug resembling THC, the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, provides some protection against brain inflammation, which might result in better memory at an older age. This is due to receptors in the system that can also influence the production of new neurons.

Cells bearing cannabinoid receptors respond to ligand binding in a variety of ways. When THC binds CB1 receptors in some nerve cells, for example, it triggers a cascade of reactions that ultimately slow down nerve impulses. This might slow a person’s reaction time enough to make driving hazardous, but the same process could also dull pain signals traveling along those nerves, thereby providing some pain relief. Likewise, when THC binds CB2 receptors on white blood cells, it may impede their natural response to infection—a bad thing if it lowers a person’s resistance to disease but a good thing if it reduces painful inflammation.

Although CB1 and CB2 share some structural and functional similarities, the two receptor types are different enough that it may be possible to design ligands that, unlike THC, would act on only one of them. Medicines based on these ligands would be expected to have fewer side effects due to their greater precision. In recent years researchers have discovered several natural ligands that bind only to CB1 or CB2; they have also synthesized a few such selective ligands. Although currently used only as research tools, these compounds represent an encouraging start toward developing novel medicines based on cannabinoids.

Ailments and Corresponding Cannabinoid

Disclaimer: Nothing on this website should be taken to constitute professional or medical advice. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease.

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The Major Terpenes of Cannabis Resin and Their Effects

Borneol – Borneol is a major component of cannabis resin that can also be found in cinnamon and wormwood (Artemesia spp). In Chinese medicine herbs containing borneol are recommended for fatigue and overstress. Borneal is mentioned to be a calming sedative. Caryphyllene – Caryphyllene is a major component of cannabis resin that can also be found in black pepper and cloves. It is a fairly weak agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptors (cb2). As a constituent of a salve or lotion corphyllene is an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Drug dogs are trained to specifically sniff out corphyllene epoxide, a similar compound produced only by cannabis. Cineole/eucalyptol – Cineole/eucalyptol content is quite variable across varieties of Cannabis, but is often a major component of the essential oil. It is also found in rosemary and eucalyptus and is used to increase circulation, and reduce pain and swelling when applied topically. It readily crosses the blood/brain barrier, possibly helping cannabinoids to cross more readily as well. The effects of cineole, when combined with oral or smoked Cannabis, are reported as being very uplifting, noticeably increasing mental and physical energy. This terpene, or others like it, may be responsible for the reported difference in effect between indica and sativa strains with a similar cannabinoid profile. Limonene – Found in cannabis resin as well as tropical fruit rinds, limonene is an anti-bacterial, anti fungal and anti cancer agent. Currently undergoing trials for use as an anti depressant, it is also known to increase the absorption of other terpenes by making cell membranes more permeable. The presence of this anti fungal agent may be helpful in protecting against Aspergillus infection in those with compromised immunity when using spoiled or poorly cured marijuana. Limonene is currently in trials to study its ability to prevent breast cancer formation. Delta-3-Carene – A component of cannabis, rosemary, pine, and cedar resin. Aromatherapy oils that contain high levels of delta3carene are used to dry excess fluids from the eyes, nose, or mouth. It is thought to be at least partially responsible for the dry mouth and eye problems that are common side effects of the use of cannabis. Linalool – This major component of cannabis and lavender oils is believed to possess anti anxiety and sedative properties. Strains that are high in linalool and similar compounds may be particularly beneficial for patients who experience insomnia when consuming Cannabis. Myrcene – Significant concentrations of myrcene are present in cannabis resin. It is also found in mango, hops, lemon grass, East Indian bay tree, and verbena. Because of its appealing fragrance, myrcene is used in the perfume industry. It has a similar modulating effect on the binding of Cannabinoid agonist drugs as Cannabidiol, possibly reducing effects of Cannabis resin that are found to be unpleasant for some medical users. It has anti microbial, anti septic, analgesic, anti oxidant, anti carcinogen and anti-inflammatory properties. It has shown some promise when used as an anti depressant, or as an additive to other anti depressant drugs and is also used in massage therapy as a muscle relaxer. Terpineol – Minor component of Cannabis resin, used extensively in the perfume industry. Interestingly this terpene decreases motility of lab rats by 45 percent, this observation coupled with the fact that this is a terpene produced primarily in Cannabis indica plants indicates terpineol could play a role in decreased motility sometimes referred to as “couch lock”.

Some tips when deciding on a specific type of medication

Indica Flowers Are Typically Used For: Pain Relief, Sedation, Anxiety, Neuropathy/Neuralgia, Menstrual Cramps, PMS, Glaucoma, Muscle Cramps, Muscle Spasms, Asthma, AIDS, Epilepsy, IBS, Gastric Disorders, Arthritis (Osteo & Rheumatoid), Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy, Crohn’s Disease, Fibromyalgia, ALS, Migraines, Hyperactivity, Insomnia, ADD and more. Sativa Flowers Are Typically Used For: Psychoactive Conditions, Social Anxiety, Mild Depression, Fatigue and more. Hybrid Flowers Contain Both Indica and Sativa Genes Some tips for finding the right Hybrid strain include: Adding Sativa adds mental clarity to Indica strains and decreases the sedation effect. Adding Indica to Sativa strains can decrease or even eliminate the sativa tendency to stimulate greater anxiety and even paranoia/panic in adolescents and patients with a history of mood disorder or psychosis.

How much THC should I consume?

There are several factors that can affect how the body reacts to THC. Such factors may include but are not limited to: The presence of other cannabinoids, THC tolerance, body weight, pain levels and other foods or medications recently consumed or already in the bodies system. Government research has shown consuming THC has a noticeable effect on appetite, nausea, and pain management. The FDA guidelines for prescribing Dronabinol (Marinol), which is the synthetic form of THC, is 2.5 to 15mg of THC, 3 times a day. It is important to remember that every individual will have a different dosage need, independent of body size and tolerance. Most patients report noticeable and enjoyable results after consuming 20 to 25mg of THC from our edibles.

Forms of Medicating

Method Onset Peak Duration
Inhalation – Smoking or vaporizing, the most common method Minutes 30 minutes 1-4 hours
Oral – Edibles, drinks “cannabis products can often be powerful even in small doses” 60-90 minutes 2-3 hours 6 to 8 hours
Sublingual – Using tablets, strips or sprays under the tongue 5-60 minutes 1-2 hours 1-4 hours

Numerous Forms of Medicating that are Non-Smoking

Edibles, Topical , Tinctures, Inhalers (Sublingual Sprays), Capsules, Tablets, Gum.

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Edibles

 Dosing = mg of THC – Patients new to edibles should not consume more than 10 to 15mg of THC per hour, and stop consuming once the desired effect has been achieved. Please be aware that the effects from consuming THC can last for several hours or longer. For maximum absorption and efficacy, consume edibles on an empty stomach and wait at least one hour before consuming more. Our Edibles are handcrafted daily by professionals using fresh and natural ingredients. Our small batch philosophy guarantees freshness, consistency and potency. All Edibles are independently Lab Tested for potency and accurate dosage. The suggested dose of THC for people with low tolerance is 10mg, and with higher tolerance is 25mg. Our Edibles are very potent and contain multiple doses. Patients with chronic or severe conditions may find relief from considerably higher doses of THC.

Concentrates

About CO2 Extraction: CO2 extraction or Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is known for being the most effective way to extract beneficial essences from plant matter. This method is not only used for cannabis concentrates, but is also used to create pure essential oils and to strip out or separate different elements of botanicals. Popular products manufactured using this method are:  herbal essential oils, hops for beer, high value pharmaceutical precursors and decaffeinated coffee. How It Works: Supercritical fluid extraction is a method of using high pressure to force a solvent through plant matter. In our case, the solvent we use is carbon dioxide. When the solvent is pushed through the plant matter at such a high pressure, it can separate the matter precisely which allows us to isolate only the purest essence of our botanicals- in this case, cannabis. The result is pure, transparent, amber oil. Why CO2? Supercritical CO2’s high diffusion rates allow it to penetrate solids faster than a liquid solvent. The benefit of using Carbon Dioxide as an extraction solvent is its place in nature. Carbon Dioxide is a natural product which leaves behind no residues. CO2’s purity is its biggest advantage over all other solvents used for plant extraction. Currently, a popular extraction solvent is butane which can potentially leave heavy metals behind in your finished product. Kief refers to the resin glands (or trichomes) of cannabis which is sifted from loose dry cannabis buds with a mesh screen or sieve. Kief contains a much higher concentration of desired psychoactive cannabinoids, such as THC, than other preparations of cannabis buds from which it is derived. Kief can be vaporized or smoked in its powder form.   Hash – Ice water separation (also known as water hash, or bubble hash) is an extraction technique for separating the THC laden trichomes from the Cannabis plant in order to extract the resin. The ice-water method requires, ice, water, agitation, filtration bags with variously-sized screens and plant material. With the ice-water extraction method the resin becomes hard and brittle and can easily be separated. This allows large quantities of pure resins to be extracted in a very clean process without the use of solvents, for making purified hashish.

The Laws

California Medical Marijuana Laws

 

 

Local Medical Marijuana Cultivation & Possession Guidelines Under California State Law SB 420